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            冷作和熱作模具鋼的工作條件是什么?

            來源:http://www.environmentandpeople.net/ 日期:2021-03-12 發布人:admin


            冷作模具鋼的工作條件:
            Working conditions of cold working die steel:
            冷作模具鋼在工作時.由于被加工材料的變形抗力比較大,模具的工作部分承受很大的壓力、彎曲力、沖擊力及摩擦力。因此,冷作模具的正常報廢原因一般是磨損.也有因斷裂、崩力和變形超差而提前失效的。
            When the cold working die steel is working, the working part of the die bears great pressure, bending force, impact force and friction force due to the large deformation resistance of the processed material. Therefore, the normal scrapping reason of cold working die is generally wear and tear, and also premature failure due to fracture, collapse force and out of tolerance deformation.
            冷作模具鋼與刃具鋼相比.有許多共同點。要求模具有高的硬度和耐磨性、高的抗彎強度和足夠的韌性,以保證沖壓過程的順利進行、其不同之處在于模具形狀及加I工藝復雜.而且摩擦面積大.磨損可能性大.所以修磨起來困難。因此要求具有更高的耐磨化模具工作時承受沖壓力大.
            Compared with cutting tool steel, cold working die steel has a lot in common. The die is required to have high hardness and wear resistance, high bending strength and enough toughness to ensure the smooth progress of the stamping process. The difference is that the die shape and the process of adding I are complex, and the friction area is large and the possibility of wear is large, so it is difficult to repair. Therefore, it is required to have a higher wear resistance, and the die bears a large impact pressure when working
            又由于形狀復雜易于產生應力集中,所以要求具有較高的韌性;模具尺寸大、形狀復雜.所以要求較高的淬透性、較小的變形及開裂傾向性??傊?,冷作模具鋼在淬透性、耐磨性與韌性等方面的要求要較刃具鋼高一些.而在紅硬性方面卻要求較低或基本上沒要求(因為是冷態成形),所以也相應形成了一些適于做冷作模具用的鋼種,例如,發展了高耐磨、微變形冷作模具用鋼及高韌性冷作模具用鋼等。下面結合有關鋼種選用進一步說明。
            Because of the complex shape, it is easy to produce stress concentration, so it requires higher toughness; because of the large size and complex shape of the die, it requires higher hardenability, smaller deformation and cracking tendency. In a word, the requirements of hardenability, wear resistance and toughness of cold working die steel are higher than those of cutting tool steel, but the requirements of red hardness are lower or basically not required (because it is cold forming), so some suitable steel grades for cold working die have been formed correspondingly, for example, high wear resistance, micro deformation cold working die steel and high toughness cold working die steel have been developed. The following is further explained in combination with the selection of relevant steel grades.
            熱作模具鋼的工作條件
            Working conditions of hot working die steel
            熱作模具包括錘鍛模、熱擠壓模和壓鑄模三類。如前所述.熱作模具工作條件的主要特點是與熱態金屬相接觸、這是與冷作模具工作條件的主要區別。因此會帶來以下兩方面的問題:
            Hot working die includes hammer forging die, hot extrusion die and die casting die. As mentioned above, the main feature of working conditions of hot working die is contact with hot metal, which is the main difference from working conditions of cold working die. Therefore, it will bring the following two problems:
            (l)模腔表層金屬受熱。通常錘鍛模工作時.其模腔表面溫度可達300~400℃以上熱擠壓??蛇_500一800℃以上;壓鑄模模腔溫度與壓鑄材料種類及澆注溫度有關。如壓鑄黑色金屬時模腔溫度可達1000℃以上。
            (l) The surface metal of the cavity is heated. The surface temperature of the die cavity can reach 300-400 ℃ or above when the hammer forging die is working. The temperature of the die cavity of the hot extrusion die can reach 500-800 ℃. The temperature of the die cavity of the die casting die is related to the type of the die casting material and the pouring temperature. For example, the temperature of die cavity can reach more than 1000 ℃ when casting ferrous metal.
            這樣高的使用溫度會使模腔表面硬度和強度顯著降低,在使用中易發生打垛。為此.對熱模具鋼的基本使用性能要求是熱塑變抗力高,包括高溫硬度和高溫強度、高的熱塑變抗力,實際上反映了鋼的高回火穩定性。由此便可以找到熱模具鋼合金化的第一種途徑,即加入Cr、W、Si.等合金元素可以提高鋼的回火穩定性。
            Such a high temperature will significantly reduce the surface hardness and strength of the mold cavity, and it is easy to stack in use. Therefore, the basic performance requirements of hot die steel are high thermoplastic deformation resistance, including high temperature hardness and high temperature strength, high thermoplastic deformation resistance, which actually reflects the high tempering stability of the steel. Therefore, the first way of alloying hot die steel can be found, that is, adding CR, W, Si and other alloying elements can improve the tempering stability of the steel.
            (2)模腔表層金屬產生熱疲勞(龜裂)。熱模的工作特點是具有間歇性.每次使熱態金屬成形后都要用水、油、空氣等介質冷卻模腔的表面。因此.熱模的工作狀態是反復受熱和冷卻,從而使模腔表層金屬產生反復的熱脹冷縮,即反復承受拉壓應力作用.其結果引起模腔表面出現龜裂,稱為熱疲勞現象,由此,對熱模具鋼提出了第二個基本使用性能要求.即具有高的熱疲勞抗力。
            (2) Thermal fatigue (cracking) occurs in the surface metal of die cavity. The working characteristic of hot die is intermittence. Every time the hot metal is formed, the surface of die cavity should be cooled by water, oil, air and other media. Therefore, the working state of the hot die is repeated heating and cooling, which makes the surface metal of the die cavity produce repeated thermal expansion and cold contraction, that is, repeatedly bear tensile and compressive stress. The result causes cracks on the surface of the die cavity, which is called thermal fatigue phenomenon. Therefore, the second basic performance requirement of the hot die steel is put forward, that is, high thermal fatigue resistance.

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