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        熱鍛模具鋼的熱鍛方法

        來源:http://www.environmentandpeople.net/ 日期:2022-05-20 發布人:guanli


        熱鍛模具鋼的熱鍛是在必定的溫度規劃內進行的。鋼的鑄造溫度規劃是指初步鑄造溫度(始鍛溫度)與完畢鑄造溫度(終鍛溫度)之間的一段溫度區間。
        The hot forging of hot forging die steel is carried out within a certain temperature plan. The casting temperature planning of steel refers to a temperature range between the initial casting temperature (initial forging temperature) and the finished casting temperature (final forging temperature).
        確認鑄造溫度規劃的基本原則是:保證鋼有較高的塑性,較低的變形抗力,得到高質量鍛件,一同鑄造溫度規劃盡可能廣大些,以便削減加熱火次,進步鑄造生產率。確認鑄造溫度規劃的基本辦法是:以鋼的平衡圖為基礎,再參考鋼的塑性圖、抗力求和再結晶圖,由塑性、質量和變形抗力三方面加以歸納剖析,從而定出始鍛溫度和終鍛溫度。一般,碳鋼的鑄造溫度規劃依據鐵一碳平衡圖便可直接確認。關于大都合金結構鋼的鑄造溫度規劃,能夠參照含碳量相同的碳鋼來考慮。但對塑性較低的高合金鋼,以及不發作相變的鋼種(如奧氏體鋼,純鐵體鋼),則需要通過試驗,才干得出合理的鑄造溫度規劃。
        The basic principle of confirming the casting temperature planning is to ensure that the steel has high plasticity and low deformation resistance, so as to obtain high-quality forgings. The casting temperature planning should be as broad as possible, so as to reduce the heating fire and improve the casting productivity. The basic method to confirm the casting temperature planning is to determine the initial forging temperature and final forging temperature by summarizing and analyzing the plasticity, quality and deformation resistance based on the balance diagram of steel, and then referring to the plasticity diagram, resistance summation and recrystallization diagram of steel. Generally, the casting temperature planning of carbon steel can be directly confirmed according to the iron carbon balance diagram. The casting temperature planning of Dadu alloy structural steel can be considered with reference to carbon steel with the same carbon content. However, for high alloy steels with low plasticity and steels without phase transformation (such as austenitic steel and pure ferritic steel), it is necessary to obtain a reasonable casting temperature plan through tests.
        溫度的確認
        Confirmation of temperature
        確認鋼的始鍛溫度,首先有必要保證鋼無過燒現象。因而對碳鋼來講,始鍛溫度應低于鐵-碳平衡圖的始熔線150~250℃,見圖9-5所示。此外,還應考慮到毛坯組織、鑄造方法和變形工藝等要素。碳鋼鑄造溫度規劃碳鋼鑄造溫度規劃。
        To confirm the initial forging temperature of steel, it is necessary to ensure that the steel is free from overburning. Therefore, for carbon steel, the initial forging temperature should be 150 ~ 250 ℃ lower than the initial melting line of iron carbon balance diagram, as shown in Figure 9-5. In addition, factors such as blank structure, casting method and deformation process should also be considered. Carbon steel casting temperature planning.
        熱鍛模具鋼;終鍛溫度
        Hot forging die steel; Final forging temperature
        在確認終鍛溫度時,既要保證鋼在終鍛前具有滿意的塑性,又要使鍛件能夠獲得的組織功能。因而,鋼的終鍛溫度應高于再結晶溫度,以保證鍛后再結晶完全,使鍛件得到細晶粒組織。就碳鋼而言,終鍛溫度不能低于鐵一碳平衡圖的A1線。不然,塑性顯著下降,變形抗力大,加工硬化現象嚴峻,簡單發作鑄造裂紋。關于亞共析鋼,終鍛溫度應在A3線以上15~50℃,因位于單相奧氏體區。組織均一而塑性??墒菍Φ吞间摚ê剂啃∮?.3%),終鍛溫度能夠降到A3線以下,雖然處于(γ+α)雙相區,仍具有滿意的塑性,變形抗力也不太高,而且還擴展了鑄造溫度規劃。
        When confirming the final forging temperature, it is necessary not only to ensure that the steel has satisfactory plasticity before final forging, but also to enable the forging to obtain satisfactory microstructure and function. Therefore, the final forging temperature of steel should be higher than the recrystallization temperature to ensure complete recrystallization after forging and obtain fine grain structure. For carbon steel, the final forging temperature shall not be lower than the A1 line of the iron carbon balance diagram. Otherwise, the plasticity decreases significantly, the deformation resistance is large, the work hardening phenomenon is severe, and the casting cracks simply occur. For hypoeutectoid steel, the final forging temperature should be 15 ~ 50 ℃ above A3 line, because it is located in single-phase austenite zone. The structure is homogeneous and plastic. However, for low carbon steel (carbon content less than 0.3%), the final forging temperature can be reduced below A3 line, although it is at( γ+α) The dual phase region still has satisfactory plasticity, the deformation resistance is not too high, and the casting temperature planning is extended.
        關于過共析鋼,終鍛溫度應在Acm線以下,A1線以上50~100℃。這是因為,若終鍛溫度選在Acm線以上,則會在鍛后的冷卻過程中,沿著晶界分出二次網狀滲碳體,將使鍛件的力學功能大為下降。如在Acm線與A1線之間鑄造,因為塑性變形的機械破碎作用,可使分出的二次滲碳體呈彌散狀。
        For hypereutectoid steel, the final forging temperature shall be below ACM line and 50 ~ 100 ℃ above A1 line. This is because if the final forging temperature is above the ACM line, the secondary network cementite will be separated along the grain boundary during the cooling process after forging, which will greatly reduce the mechanical function of the forging. If cast between ACM line and A1 line, the separated secondary cementite can be dispersed due to the mechanical crushing effect of plastic deformation.
        還須指出,鋼的終鍛溫度與鋼的組織、鑄造工序和后續工序等也有關。關于無相變的鋼種,因為不能用熱處理辦法細化晶粒,只需依托鑄造來控制晶粒度。為了使鍛件獲得細微晶粒,這類鋼的終鍛溫度一般偏低。當鍛后當即進行鍛件余熱熱處理時,終鍛溫度應滿意余熱熱處理的要求。如鍛件的原料為低碳鋼,終鍛溫度則稍高于A。線。
        It should also be pointed out that the final forging temperature of steel is also related to the structure, casting process and subsequent process of steel. For the steel without phase transformation, because the grain cannot be refined by heat treatment, the grain size only needs to be controlled by casting. In order to obtain fine grains, the final forging temperature of this kind of steel is generally low. When the residual heat treatment of forgings is carried out immediately after forging, the final forging temperature shall meet the requirements of residual heat treatment. If the raw material of the forging is low carbon steel, the final forging temperature is slightly higher than a. Line.
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