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            冷作模具鋼的材料成分的分析

            來源:http://www.environmentandpeople.net/ 日期:2020-12-02 發布人:admin


            根據模具材料的性能要求,冷作模具鋼的成分特點如下:
            According to the performance requirements of die materials, the composition characteristics of cold working die steel are as follows:
            1.鋼的含碳量
            1. Carbon content of steel
            含碳量是影響冷作模具鋼性能的決定性因素。一般,隨著含碳量的增加,鋼的硬度、強度和耐磨性提高,塑性、韌性變差。對于高耐磨的冷作模具鋼,碳的質量分數一般控制在0.7%~2.3%,以獲得高碳馬氏體,并形成一定量的碳化物;對于需要抗沖擊的高強韌性冷作模具,其鋼材的碳的質量分數一般控制在0.5%~0.7%,以保證模具獲得足夠的韌性。
            Carbon content is the decisive factor affecting the properties of cold working die steel. Generally, with the increase of carbon content, the hardness, strength and wear resistance of the steel are improved, and the plasticity and toughness become worse. For the high wear-resistant cold work die steel, the carbon content is generally controlled at 0.7% ~ 2.3% to obtain high-carbon martensite and form a certain amount of carbide; for the high-strength and toughness cold work die which needs impact resistance, the carbon content of the steel is generally controlled at 0.5% ~ 0.7%, so as to ensure that the die can obtain sufficient toughness.
            2.合金化特點
            2. Alloying characteristics
            冷作模具鋼的合金化主要特點是:加入強碳化物形成元素,獲得足夠數量的合金碳化物,并增加鋼的淬透性和回火穩定性,以達到耐磨性和強韌性的要求。所加入的主要元素及其作用簡述如下:
            The main characteristics of alloying of cold working die steel are as follows: adding strong carbide forming elements to obtain enough alloy carbides, increasing hardenability and tempering stability of steel, so as to meet the requirements of wear resistance and strength and toughness. The main elements and their functions are described as follows:
            (1)錳錳會強烈地增加鋼的淬透性,大幅度降低鋼的Ms點,增加淬火后殘留奧氏體量,這對防止工件變形、淬裂,穩定外形尺寸是有利的。但降低鋼的導熱性,有較大的過熱敏感性,并加劇第二類回火脆性。所以,錳宜與鉬、釩、鉻、鎢復合添加。在抗沖擊及高強韌性冷作模具鋼中的用量受到限制。
            (1) Manganese and manganese can strongly increase the hardenability of the steel, greatly reduce the MS point of the steel and increase the retained austenite volume after quenching, which is beneficial to prevent the deformation and crack of the workpiece and stabilize the overall dimension. However, reducing the thermal conductivity of the steel has a greater overheat sensitivity and aggravates the second temper brittleness. Therefore, manganese should be combined with molybdenum, vanadium, chromium and tungsten. The amount of cold working die steel with impact resistance, high strength and toughness is limited.
            (2)硅硅會增加鋼的淬透性和回火穩定性,顯著提高變形抗力及沖擊疲勞抗力;也可提高抗氧化性和耐蝕性。但硅促使鋼中的碳以石墨形式析出,造成脫碳傾向比較嚴重,并增加鋼的過熱敏感性和第二類回火脆性。
            (2) Silicon silicon can increase the hardenability and tempering stability of steel, significantly improve the deformation resistance and impact fatigue resistance, and also improve the oxidation resistance and corrosion resistance. However, silicon promotes the precipitation of carbon in the form of graphite, which results in serious decarburization tendency and increases the superheat sensitivity and the second temper brittleness of steel.
            (3)鉻鉻會顯著地增加鋼的淬透性,有效提高鋼的回火穩定性。鋼中隨著含鉻量的增加,依次生成(Fe·Cr),C、(Fe·Cr),C、(Fe·Cr)aC等碳化物,這些碳化物穩定性較好,從而減小鋼的過熱敏感性,提高鋼的耐磨性。鉻對鋼表面具有鈍化作用,使鋼具有抗氧化能力。但鉻含量較高會增加碳化物不均勻性和殘留奧氏體量。一般在低合金冷作模具鋼中鉻的質量分數為0.5%~1.5%;在高強韌性冷作模具鋼中,鉻的質量分數為4%~5%;在高耐磨微變形模具鋼中,鉻的質量分數為6%~12%。
            (3) Chromium and chromium can significantly increase the hardenability of steel and effectively improve the tempering stability of steel. With the increase of chromium content in steel, carbides such as (Fe · CR), C, (Fe · CR), C, (Fe · CR) AC are formed in turn. These carbides have good stability, which can reduce the overheat sensitivity of steel and improve the wear resistance of steel. Chromium has passivation effect on the surface of steel, which makes the steel have oxidation resistance. However, the higher chromium content will increase the carbide inhomogeneity and retained austenite content. Generally, the mass fraction of chromium is 0.5% ~ 1.5% in low alloy cold working die steel, 4% ~ 5% in high strength and Toughness Cold Work Die steel, and 6% ~ 12% in high wear resistance and micro deformation die steel.
            (4)鋁鉬可提高淬透性和高溫蠕變強度;回火穩定性和二次硬化效果也強于鉻;并能抑制鉻、錳、硅引起的第二類回火脆性,但鉬會增加脫碳傾向。常用冷作模具鋼中的鉬質量分數一般為0.5%~5%。
            (4) The results show that Al Mo can improve hardenability and creep strength at high temperature, temper stability and secondary hardening effect are better than Cr, and can inhibit the second temper brittleness caused by Cr, Mn and Si, but Mo can increase decarburization tendency. The mass fraction of molybdenum in common cold working die steel is generally 0.5% ~ 5%.
            (5)鎢鎢的一大優點是會造成二次硬化,顯著提高鋼的熱硬性;其提高耐磨性和降低鋼的過熱敏感性的作用優于鉬。但鎢會強烈地降低鋼的導熱性,過量的鎢還會使得鎢的碳化物不均,鋼的強度和韌性降低。在高承載能力冷作模具鋼中,鎢的質量分數小于18%,并且有以鉬或釩代替鎢以減少鎢含量的趨勢。
            (5) One of the advantages of W-W is that it can cause secondary hardening and significantly improve the thermal hardness of steel, and its effect on improving wear resistance and reducing overheat sensitivity of steel is better than that of molybdenum. But tungsten will strongly reduce the thermal conductivity of steel, excessive tungsten will also make tungsten carbide uneven, the strength and toughness of steel will be reduced. In the cold working die steel with high bearing capacity, the mass fraction of tungsten is less than 18%, and there is a tendency to replace tungsten with molybdenum or vanadium to reduce the content of tungsten.
            (6)釩釩主要以V.C,形式存在于鋼中。由于V.C,穩定難溶,硬度極高,所以釩能顯著提高鋼的耐磨性和熱硬性;同時釩還可細化晶粒,降低鋼的過熱敏感性。但祝含量過高,會降低鋼的可鍛性和磨削性。故釩的質量分數一般控制在0.2%~1.5%。
            (6) Vanadium and vanadium mainly exist in steel in the form of V.C. Because V.C is stable, insoluble and has high hardness, vanadium can significantly improve the wear resistance and thermal hardness of steel; at the same time, vanadium can refine the grain size and reduce the overheat sensitivity of steel. However, if the content is too high, the malleability and grindability of the steel will be reduced. Therefore, the mass fraction of vanadium is generally controlled at 0.2% ~ 1.5%.
            (7)鉆、鎳鉆的主要作用是提高高速鋼冷作模具的熱硬性,增強二次硬化效果。在硬質合金冷作模具材料中,鉆是重要的粘結劑。
            (7) The main function of drill and nickel drill is to improve the thermal hardness of high speed steel cold working die and enhance the secondary hardening effect. Drill is an important binder in cemented carbide cold working die materials.
            鎳既能提高鋼的強度又能提高鋼的韌性,同時還可提高鋼的淬透性;含量較高時,可顯著提高鋼的耐蝕性。但鎳有增加第二類回火脆性的傾向。
            Nickel can not only improve the strength and toughness of steel, but also improve the hardenability of steel; when the content of nickel is higher, the corrosion resistance of steel can be significantly improved. However, nickel tends to increase the second temper embrittlement.

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